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Plantae

柳杉 Japanese Cedar

柳杉Cryptomeria japonica
是自日本引進的造林樹種,性喜溫暖潮濕的環境,早期做電線桿使用。細窄的葉子螺旋排列,鑿形。雌花近球形略帶紫色,而橢圓形的雄花較小,呈淡褐色,雌雄同株。
This afforestation species (also known as Japanese cedar), brought in from Japan, favors a warm, humid environment. In earlier years it was used for electric line poles. Narrow leaves arranged in spirals, subulate. Nearly spherical female flowers bear a purplish tint; oval male flowers slightly smaller, light brown. Male and female flowers grow on the same tree.

栓皮櫟 Chinese Cork Oak

栓皮櫟Quercus variabilis
落葉喬木,深秋落葉前葉轉黃,甚美。樹皮的木栓層厚軟有彈性,可製軟木塞,也隔熱、耐火。兩側葉脈突出葉緣,葉背灰白,殼斗的線狀鱗片反捲,讓果實好像燙了爆炸頭一般。
This deciduous tree has leaves that turn yellow in autumn in a beautiful presentation. The cork layer of the bark is thick, soft, and flexible; it insulates against heat and is fire-resistant, and can be made into cork stoppers. Leaf veins project from margins in hair-like teeth. Leaves silvery below. Acorn have filiform scales that turn backward, making the fruit look like an Afro hairdo. 。

克育草 Kikuyu Grass

克育草Pennisetum cladestinum
原產東非,匐匍莖與地下莖發達,生長旺盛,是臺灣水土保持、護坡、放牧用草;場區美麗的草原,是同仁一株株手工栽種,加上羊隻適度踩踏的成果。
This East African native has a creeping stem and well-developed subterranean rhizome that help it grow luxuriantly, making it useful for soil conservation, slope protection, and animal grazing in Taiwan. The farm’s beautiful grassland is the result of planting it, one plant at a time, and of trampling by the sheep.

山櫻花 Taiwan Cherry

山櫻花Prnus campanulata
山櫻花是花色最濃艷的櫻花,亞熱帶名花木。下垂的鐘狀漏斗形花冠柔美嬌豔,凋落時花瓣不分離。花蜜與果實是鳥兒喜愛的美味佳餚。樹皮褐色有光澤,表面常呈片狀剝落。
This tree produces the most richly colored of all cherry blossoms, making it a favored subtropical flowering species. The hanging campanulate funnel-shaped corollas have a charming beauty, and when they fall off the petals do not separate. The nectar and fruit are favored as bird foods. The bark is brown and glossy,, and frequently flakes off.

臺灣肖楠 Taiwan Incense Cedar

臺灣肖楠Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana
為臺灣針葉五木之一,最佳的神桌材料。含高量的扁柏醇,具抗菌效果,可提振精神,舒緩情緒;樹形長錐狀,樹皮紅褐色,小枝扁平且節間長,鱗狀葉十字對生,毬果長橢圓形。
This tree produces fine wood for making altar tables, with a high content of hinokitiol, an essence that has antibacterial properties and can boost the spirit and relieve the mood. The tree is conical in shape, with reddish-brown bark; branchlets flat, with long internodes; leaves scalelike, decussate; cones oblong.

青楓 Green maple

青楓Acer serrulatum
為臺灣特有種,枝條青綠色,葉子對生,葉形似手掌,果實為扁平成對的翅果,成熟時會隨風旋轉飄落;秋冬寒流來襲時,橙紅的葉片相當醉人。
This is a Taiwan endemic. Branches green; leaves opposite, palm-shaped; samara fruit, in pairs, floating down on the wind when ripe. When cold winds of autumn and winter blow in, leaves turn an enchanting orange.

楓香 Formosan Sweet Gum

楓香Liquidambar formosana
為第三紀冰河孑遺植物,高大落葉喬木。葉子互生,葉形多三裂,果實為具有芒刺狀的球形聚合蒴果,種子散落後會留下許多小空室而被稱作「路路通」。寒冬初臨,葉轉金黃至橙紅色彩,光彩奪目。
This large deciduous tree is a tertiary relict from the Ice Age. Leaves opposite, generally 3-lobed; fruitlappaceous, spherical, aggregate capsular; seeds leave holes when dispersed. Leaves turn an eye-catching golden yellow to red-orange when the chill winter comes.

紅檜 Taiwan Red Cypress

紅檜Chamaecyparis formosensis
冰河孑遺植物,臺灣特有種,多生長於雲霧繚繞的中海拔森林中,為東亞最巨大的樹種,以神木群馳名於世。樹皮薄而呈淡紅褐色,毬果橢圓形,木材質地細緻且具特殊芳香,是高級的家具與建築用材。
This Taiwan endemic, a relict from the Ice Age, grows mostly in foggy middle-elevation forests. It is the largest tree species in East Asia, and is widely known for forming “sacred tree” groves. The bark is thin and pale reddish-brown in color; cones ovate; wood fine-grained and uniquely scented, making it a favored material for high-class furniture and construction.

香冠柏 Goldcrest Cypress

香冠柏Cupressus macroglossus
鱗片狀葉子顏色翠綠略帶金黃,形狀略作Y字形,新葉金黃色,又稱金冠柏。葉子搗碎後香氣具驅蟲功效,樹形呈塔狀可裝飾成聖誕樹。
Scalelike leaves are green with a gold tent’ somewhat Y-shaped; young leaves gold ion color, accounting for the tree’s name. Crushed leaves have an insect-repelling aroma. Pyramidal form makes it useful as a Christmas tree.

台灣杉 Cryptomeria-like Taiwania

台灣杉Taiwania cryptomerioides
臺灣特有種,並以臺灣為屬名,是臺灣最高大的林木,世界級珍貴樹種。鱗狀葉先端尖銳,枝條下垂、末端微微上翹,雄花小,密生於枝先端,雌花與毬果球形。
This endemic species, named for Taiwan, is the island’s largest tree and a world-class rare tree. It has scalelike leaves with sharply pointed tips and drooping branches with a slight upturn at their tips; male flowers small, growing densely at the tips of branches; female flowers and cones spherical in shape.

海州常山 Harlequin Glorybower

海州常山Clerodendrum trichotomum
為灌木至小喬木,6~11月時開滿芳香白花,紅色的花萼內托有藍綠色的圓形核果,花為曙鳳蝶、黃裳鳳蝶及長喙天蛾的蜜源植物之一。
The shrub small tree is covered with fragrant white blossoms from June to November, with blue-green round drupes inside red calyces. The flowers provide a nectar source for aurora swallowtail butterflies, golden bird wing butterflies, and hawk moths.

山豬肉 Lacquerleaf Meliosma

山豬肉Meliosma rhoifolia
樹幹以刀削後,內皮為淡紅褐色,有白色縱條紋,有如五花肉,因而得名。葉子可作為豬的飼料用,材質輕軟的褐色木材可作箱櫃及小器具,紅色的果實成串,觀賞價值高。
Inner bark is a pale reddish brown with white vertical stripes, resembling pork belly meat; hence the Chinese name shanzhurou, or “wild boar meat.” The leaves can be used for pig feed, and the soft, light, brown wood can be made into chests and small utensils. The strings of red fruit have high ornamental value.

台灣赤楊 Formosan Alder

台灣赤楊Alnus formosana
落葉喬木,高直。葉互生,葉緣有細鋸齒,雄花序呈葇荑狀下垂,橢圓形毬果灰綠色,根系發達,有根瘤菌可改良土壤,是造林和水土保持的重要樹種。
This deciduous tree grows tall and straight. Leaves alternate, with serrulate margins. Male inflorescence juliform, drooping. Cones ovate, gray-green. Root system well developed with rhizobia that can improve the soil, making this an important reforestation and soil conservation species.

重瓣山櫻花 Taiwan Cherry

重瓣山櫻花Prunus campanulata “Double-flowered”
植株可高達8~10公尺,樹皮黑褐色,有光澤,枝條有皮孔,花為緋紅色,濃豔照人,通常下垂,卵形核果成熟時為暗紅色,可食用。
This tree grows 8~10 meters tall, with brownish-black glossy bark and limbs with lenticels. Flowers rich crimson, usually drooping. Ovoid drupes dark red when ripe; edible.

池杉 Pond Cypress

池杉Taxodium ascendens
樹冠尖塔形,樹幹基部膨大,葉子針狀螺旋緊貼小枝,小枝向內彎曲,毬果形狀與落羽杉相似,熟時褐黃色。木材耐腐蝕,是造船,建築良材。
This tree has a spire-shaped crown and a trunk that expands at the base. Needle leaves spiral closely to twigs, which turn inward. Cones similar in shape to those of the deciduous cypress, brownish-yellow when mature. Decay-resistant wood is a good material for construction and making boats.

鼠尾草 Medicinal Sage

鼠尾草Salvia officinalis
香草植物,有許多栽培品種,全株含揮發油,可藥用或提煉芳香精油,葉片橢圓形,藍紫色唇形花,頂生密集成串,在場區花期約4~10月。
This herb plant has numerous cultivars. The entire plant contains volatile oils and can be used for making medicines or aromatic oils. Leaves ovate; flowers labiate and bluish-purple, growing terminally in dense strings. Here, the flowering period is April-October.

迎春花 Winter Jasmine

迎春花Jasminum nudiflorum
種植於高海拔地區,主要為觀賞用,每年2~4 月春天降臨前後開金黃色的花,燦爛耀眼,十分吸引人,臺灣因氣候關係較少種植。
This plant is grown in high-altitude areas, primarily for ornamental use. Produces golden flowers February to April, around the arrival of spring, in a brilliant and highly attractive display. Not often planted in Taiwan because of the island’s climatic conditions.

福杉 Chinese Fir

福杉Cunninghamia lanceolata
高直針葉樹,線狀葉呈二列螺旋狀著生,背面粉綠,毬果卵圓形,毬果鱗片微張,先端有一尖突。又稱杉仔或福州杉,生長快,是紙漿的主要原料。
This tall, straight conifer has linear distichousleaves that spiral around the stem, with powder green backs. Cone scales proliferous, with a vegetable shoot growing beyond the tip. The tree grows rapidly, making it a major paper-pulp species.

桂花 Sweet Osmanthus

桂花Osmanthus fragrans
小喬木,橢圓形葉對生,葉面油亮,葉緣有鋸齒。花香怡人,花期長,尤其秋季最為盛開,可入酒、泡茶、做調味醬或提煉芳香油,製造香水。
This small tree has ovate opposite leaves with glossy surfaces and serrate margins. The flowers have a pleasing aroma and the flowering season is long, with blossoms most abundant in autumn. Flowers can be soaked in liquor, used in tea, made into seasoning, or refined into aromatic oil for perfume.

裏白楤木 Taiwan Angelica-tree

裏白楤木Aralia bipinnata
枝幹有尖刺,葉為二回奇數羽狀複葉,葉背灰白,秋天枝頭上一叢叢的小白花,與冬季紫紅色的果實是許多昆蟲與鳥兒的最愛。
Limbs and trunk have thorns. Odd bi-pinnately compound leaves with gray-white backs. Clumps of small white flowers appear on the branches in autumn, and the purplish-red fruits that grow in winter are a favored food for insects and birds.

杜鵑花 Azalea

杜鵑花Rhododendron simsii
灌木,漏斗形的花在春天盛開於枝條頂端,有深紅、桃紅、粉紅、白等多樣的花色,帶來活潑的氣息。葉長橢圓形,有灰褐色刺毛。
This shrub reaches full bloom in the spring, with funnel-shaped flowers on the tips of its branches adding vibrancy to the season in multiple colors: red, peach red, pink, and white. Leaves oblong oval, with grayish-brown bristles.

杜鵑花 Azalea

杜鵑花Rhododendron simsii
灌木,漏斗形的花在春天盛開於枝條頂端,有深紅、桃紅、粉紅、白等多樣的花色,帶來活潑的氣息。葉長橢圓形,有灰褐色刺毛。
This shrub reaches full bloom in the spring, with funnel-shaped flowers on the tips of its branches adding vibrancy to the season in multiple colors: red, peach red, pink, and white. Leaves oblong oval, with grayish-brown bristles.
 

Animalia

大紅紋鳳蝶 Common Windmill

大紅紋鳳蝶Byasapolyeuctes subsp. termessus
大型鳳蝶,翅膀以黑色為底,展翅約8公分,後翅中央有兩塊白斑,下緣及尾突有艷麗的紅斑,食草為有毒的臺灣馬兜鈴葉,體內殘毒可避免天敵攻擊。
A large butterfly; base wing color black, wings around 8cm wide when spread; two white spots in middle of hind wings; bright red spots on lower margins and tail protrusions; feeds on leaves of the poisonous yellow mouth dutchmanspipe, accumulating toxins in its body to repel natural enemies.

紅肩粉蝶 Red-base Jezebel

紅肩粉蝶Delias pasithoe curasena
翅膀以黑色為底,展翅約6公分,收合時下翅基部紅斑醒目,紅斑至翅緣為黃斑,上翅色斑灰白。幼蟲以桑寄生科植物與檀香為食。
Base wing color black; wings about 6cm when spread; when folded exhibit an eye-catching red spot at the base; yellow spots at wing margins; gray-white spots on upper wings. Larvae feed on Indian sandalwood and plants of the Loranthaceae family.

寬青帶鳳蝶 Glassy Bluebottle

寬青帶鳳蝶Graphium cloanthus kuge
展翅約5-6公分,黑底,前後翅中央有半透明青綠色寬紋貫穿,下翅尾端有細突。幼蟲以樟科的香葉樹與小梗木薑子等為食。
Wingspread of 5-6cm; wings black below, broad, translucent blue-green stripe through the center of both fore- and hindwings; hindwings with thin tails. Larvae feed on the Chinese spice bush and Taiwan actinodaphne.

曙鳳蝶 Aurora Swallowtail

曙鳳蝶Atrophaneura horishana
大型蝶類,雙翅收合時上翅黑,下翅桃紅,有黑斑,展翅時約9~12公分,雌蝶顏色較淺。幼蟲主要以馬兜鈴科植物葉片為食。
This large butterfly shows forewings of black and hindwings of peach red when folded; when spread, the wings stretch 9~12cm. The color of the male is relatively light. The larvae feed mainly on leaves of plants of the Aristolochiaceae, or Birthwort, family.

黑脈樺斑蝶 Common Tiger

黑脈樺斑蝶Danaus genutia
翅膀與樺斑蝶相似皆為橙色,但有明顯黑色翅脈,展翅約6.5公分,收合時可見雄蝶後翅有黑色性斑,食草為蘭嶼牛皮消、臺灣牛皮消等。
Wings orange, like those of the plain tiger but with clear black veins; wings about 6.5cm wide when spread; folded wings of the male exhibit black spots on the hind wings; feeds on the Lanyu swallow-wort and Formosan swallow-wort.

白尾鴝 White-tailed Blue Robin

白尾鴝Myiomela leucura
身長約16公分,雄鳥黑藍色,雌鳥深褐色,尾羽外瓣皆是白色,亞成鳥全身有淡斑。叫聲為尖銳的「咪-哆雷咪」。多單獨於潮溼密林下活動。
Body about 16cm long; male blue-black, female dark brown; white patches on the tail. Sub-adults have pale spots all over their bodies. Call a high-putched sound like“MI…do-re-mi”. Active mostly singly in the understory of dense, humid forests.

冠羽畫眉 Formosan Yuhina

冠羽畫眉Yuhina brunneiceps
有如龐克頭的褐色羽冠是牠的招牌造型,常成群在森林中、上層活動,繁殖季會共同築巢、育雛。叫聲「吐---米酒─ 」婉轉悅耳。
A Taiwan endemic; signature feature a brown, punk-like crown; often active in flocks in the forest upper story; feeds on nectar and insects. Works together to build nests and raise young in breeding season. Call a pleasant sound somewhat like twi-MI-chiu, which resembles the phrase "to MEET you".

黃胸藪眉 (藪鳥) Steere's Liocichla

黃胸藪眉 (藪鳥)Liocichla steerii
體色橄欖色,眼下有橙黃色斑,頭腰灰黑色,翅膀短圓,嘴黑褐色,雌雄羽色相近,喜歡棲息於山區濃密樹林、草叢中。
Body olive-green in color, with orange spots below eyes; wings short and rounded, beak brown-black. Male and female have similarly colored plumage. Prefers to live in dense mountain forests and underbrush.Liocichla steerii

青背山雀 Green-backed Tit

青背山雀Parus monticolus
頭與嘴黑色,兩頰有白斑,背部黃綠,腹部兩側亮黃,中有黑色縱帶,翅上有兩條白色翼帶。通常活動於森林中、上層,叫聲「急、急-降-」或「啾、啾」輕快富變化。
Black head and beak, white spots on cheeks, yellow-green back, bright yellow below with black central line. Two white stripes on wings. Usually active in mid and upper forest levels. Call a brisk and variable ji-ji-jiang—or chew-chew.

莫氏樹蛙 Moltrechti's Green Treefrog

莫氏樹蛙Rhacophorus moltrechti
台灣特有種,體長約5公分,背部光滑翠綠,腹面白色,大腿內側鮮紅有黑斑,就像穿著紅內褲,雄蛙有一個外鳴囊,叫聲「呱—阿呱呱呱呱呱呱」如火雞。
A Taiwan endemic species; body length about 5cm; glossy green back, white abdomen; inside hind legs bright red with black spots; male has an external vocal sac that produces a turkey-like gua…a-gua-gua-gua-gua-gua sound.

盤古蟾蜍 Central Formosan Toad

盤古蟾蜍Bufo bankorensis
臺灣特有種,外表粗糙,佈滿腺性瘤狀突起,體長約6-11公分。受攻擊時會撐起四肢,發出「勾、勾」的聲音來防衛,若無效則爬走或裝死,都無效才從耳後腺噴出毒液。
This Taiwan endemic has rough skin, covered with glandular strumae. Its body is 6~11cm long. When attacked it will raise high on its four legs and emit a “gougou” sound to defend itself. If this doesn’t work it will run away or play dead; if all else fails, it will spray venom from its retroauricular glands.

獨角仙 Rhinoceros Beetle

獨角仙鞘翅目Coleoptera 金龜子科Scarabaeidae
因雄蟲頭部有一支巨大犄角而得名,目前臺灣主要有獨角仙、姬獨角仙,以吸食樹汁和腐果等為食,打架時會將用觭角將對方舉起摔出。獨角仙喜歡棲息於光蠟樹的樹幹上。
Named for the huge horn-like projection extending from the head of the male. Major species inhabiting Taiwan today are the Japanese rhinoceros beetle and Siamese rhinoceros beetle, which feed on tree sap and rotting fruit. When they fight, they use their “horns” to throw their opponents from the field. They like to live on the trunk of the Griffith’s ash.

鍬形蟲 Stag Beetle

鍬形蟲鞘翅目Coleoptera 鍬形蟲科Lucanidae
由第一對翅硬化成的翅鞘狀似圓鍬,故名鍬形蟲,全世界已發現約1200種,臺灣已紀錄超過50種,幼蟲多以朽木或腐質土為食,是森林的分解者。鍬形蟲與獨角仙都是孩童最喜歡的野生動物。
Named for the resemblance of the male’s huge jaws to the antlers of a stag. There are about 1,200 species of stage beetle in the world, of which more than 50 have been recorded in Taiwan. Larvae live mainly on rotting wood and humus soil; they are decomposers of the forest. Rhinoceros and stag beetles are favorite bugs for children.

麗紋石龍子 Five-striped Blue-tailed Skink

麗紋石龍子Eumeces elegans
體長可達22-27公分。全身光滑有鱗,幼時尾巴為美麗的寶藍色,背上有五條金黃色縱紋,成熟後體色則為樸素的灰褐色與暗色斑紋。
Body 22-27cm long; entire body glossy and scaly. Juveniles have beautiful blue tails, and five yellow stripes running down the backs give the skink its name. Adults are colored a plain gray-brown with dark spots.

短肢攀蜥 Short-legged Japalura

短肢攀蜥Japalura brevipes
臺灣特有種,全長不超過25cm,不會自割的尾巴長度約佔全長的3分之2,有良好的保護色,可隨外在的環境變化。以昆蟲及其他小型無脊椎動物為食。
A Taiwan endemic. Overall length not exceeding 25cm, non-self-severing tail accounting for about two-thirds of total length. Good camouflage, changeable according to the environment. Eats insects and other small invertebrates.

赤腹松鼠 Red-bellied Tree Squirrel

赤腹松鼠Callosciurus erythraeus thaiwanensis
身長18-24公分,尾巴較身長略短,尾毛膨大,俗稱膨鼠,背灰褐色,肚子與四肢內側紅褐色,喜歡吃殼斗科植物的果實,有儲藏食物的習慣。
Body 18-24cm long, tail slightly shorter, with hugely expanded fur. Back gray-brown, belly and inside of legs reddish-brown. Likes to eat fruit of Fagaceae (beech-oak) family plants, and has the habit of hoarding food.

黑肚綿羊 Barbado Sheep

黑肚綿羊Capra hirus
腹部、額頭、四肢內側與耳朵呈黑色,源於非洲短毛綿羊與歐洲毛用綿羊雜交而來,後在巴貝多國飼育成一固定族群,毛短無羶味,抗病力強。
Belly, forehead, inside of legs, and ears black. Cross between African short-haired sheep and European sheep. Developed in the Barbados, hence the name. Wood short and odorless; strongly resistant to disease.

獵遠牧羊犬 Huntaway

獵遠牧羊犬 獵遠牧羊犬主要以吼聲來趕羊,必須吠聲響亮,能從遠距離替牧羊主人管理或驅趕羊群。通常體力旺盛、好奇心強。
The huntaway drives sheep mainly with its bark; its bark must be powerful so that it can herd or drive flocks of sheep from a distance. Usually strong of body and highly curious.

警示牧羊犬 Eyedog

警示牧羊犬 擔任警示工作的狗狗主要以眼神、動作趕羊,必須個性機警,對周遭常保戒心,動作敏捷,善於追蹤、嚮導羊群,且忠誠不亂吠,如:邊境牧羊犬。
These dogs drive sheep mainly by using eye language and body movement. They must have an alert nature and be always aware of their surroundings; they must be agile, and good at chasing and guiding flocks. They must be devoted and not prone to needless barking—like border collies.
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