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柳杉 Japanese Cedar

Japanese CedarCryptomeria japonica
This afforestation species (also known as Japanese cedar), brought in from Japan, favors a warm, humid environment. In earlier years it was used for electric line poles. Narrow leaves arranged in spirals, subulate. Nearly spherical female flowers bear a purplish tint; oval male flowers slightly smaller, light brown. Male and female flowers grow on the same tree.

栓皮櫟 Chinese Cork Oak

Chinese Cork OakQuercus variabilis
This deciduous tree has leaves that turn yellow in autumn in a beautiful presentation. The cork layer of the bark is thick, soft, and flexible; it insulates against heat and is fire-resistant, and can be made into cork stoppers. Leaf veins project from margins in hair-like teeth. Leaves silvery below. Acorn have filiform scales that turn backward, making the fruit look like an Afro hairdo. 。

克育草 Kikuyu Grass

Kikuyu GrassPennisetum cladestinum
This East African native has a creeping stem and well-developed subterranean rhizome that help it grow luxuriantly, making it useful for soil conservation, slope protection, and animal grazing in Taiwan. The farm’s beautiful grassland is the result of planting it, one plant at a time, and of trampling by the sheep.

山櫻花 Taiwan Cherry

Taiwan CherryPrnus campanulata
This tree produces the most richly colored of all cherry blossoms, making it a favored subtropical flowering species. The hanging campanulate funnel-shaped corollas have a charming beauty, and when they fall off the petals do not separate. The nectar and fruit are favored as bird foods. The bark is brown and glossy,, and frequently flakes off.

臺灣肖楠 Taiwan Incense Cedar

Taiwan Incense CedarCalocedrus macrolepis var. formosana
This tree produces fine wood for making altar tables, with a high content of hinokitiol, an essence that has antibacterial properties and can boost the spirit and relieve the mood. The tree is conical in shape, with reddish-brown bark; branchlets flat, with long internodes; leaves scalelike, decussate; cones oblong.

青楓 Green maple

Green mapleAcer serrulatum
This is a Taiwan endemic. Branches green; leaves opposite, palm-shaped; samara fruit, in pairs, floating down on the wind when ripe. When cold winds of autumn and winter blow in, leaves turn an enchanting orange.

楓香 Formosan Sweet Gum

Formosan Sweet GumLiquidambar formosana
This large deciduous tree is a tertiary relict from the Ice Age. Leaves opposite, generally 3-lobed; fruitlappaceous, spherical, aggregate capsular; seeds leave holes when dispersed. Leaves turn an eye-catching golden yellow to red-orange when the chill winter comes.

紅檜 Taiwan Red Cypress

Taiwan Red CypressChamaecyparis formosensis
This Taiwan endemic, a relict from the Ice Age, grows mostly in foggy middle-elevation forests. It is the largest tree species in East Asia, and is widely known for forming “sacred tree” groves. The bark is thin and pale reddish-brown in color; cones ovate; wood fine-grained and uniquely scented, making it a favored material for high-class furniture and construction.

香冠柏 Goldcrest Cypress

Goldcrest CypressCupressus macroglossus
Scalelike leaves are green with a gold tent’ somewhat Y-shaped; young leaves gold ion color, accounting for the tree’s name. Crushed leaves have an insect-repelling aroma. Pyramidal form makes it useful as a Christmas tree.

台灣杉 Cryptomeria-like Taiwania

Cryptomeria-like TaiwaniaTaiwania cryptomerioides
This endemic species, named for Taiwan, is the island’s largest tree and a world-class rare tree. It has scalelike leaves with sharply pointed tips and drooping branches with a slight upturn at their tips; male flowers small, growing densely at the tips of branches; female flowers and cones spherical in shape.

海州常山 Harlequin Glorybower

Harlequin GlorybowerClerodendrum trichotomum
The shrub small tree is covered with fragrant white blossoms from June to November, with blue-green round drupes inside red calyces. The flowers provide a nectar source for aurora swallowtail butterflies, golden bird wing butterflies, and hawk moths.

山豬肉 Lacquerleaf Meliosma

Lacquerleaf MeliosmaMeliosma rhoifolia
Inner bark is a pale reddish brown with white vertical stripes, resembling pork belly meat; hence the Chinese name shanzhurou, or “wild boar meat.” The leaves can be used for pig feed, and the soft, light, brown wood can be made into chests and small utensils. The strings of red fruit have high ornamental value.

台灣赤楊 Formosan Alder

Formosan AlderAlnus formosana
This deciduous tree grows tall and straight. Leaves alternate, with serrulate margins. Male inflorescence juliform, drooping. Cones ovate, gray-green. Root system well developed with rhizobia that can improve the soil, making this an important reforestation and soil conservation species.

重瓣山櫻花 Taiwan Cherry

Taiwan CherryPrunus campanulata “Double-flowered”
This tree grows 8~10 meters tall, with brownish-black glossy bark and limbs with lenticels. Flowers rich crimson, usually drooping. Ovoid drupes dark red when ripe; edible.

池杉 Pond Cypress

Pond CypressTaxodium ascendens
This tree has a spire-shaped crown and a trunk that expands at the base. Needle leaves spiral closely to twigs, which turn inward. Cones similar in shape to those of the deciduous cypress, brownish-yellow when mature. Decay-resistant wood is a good material for construction and making boats.

鼠尾草 Medicinal Sage

Medicinal SageSalvia officinalis
This herb plant has numerous cultivars. The entire plant contains volatile oils and can be used for making medicines or aromatic oils. Leaves ovate; flowers labiate and bluish-purple, growing terminally in dense strings. Here, the flowering period is April-October.

迎春花 Winter Jasmine

Winter JasmineJasminum nudiflorum
種植於高海拔地區,主要為觀賞用,每年2~4 月春天降臨前後開金黃色的花,燦爛耀眼,十分吸引人,臺灣因氣候關係較少種植。
This plant is grown in high-altitude areas, primarily for ornamental use. Produces golden flowers February to April, around the arrival of spring, in a brilliant and highly attractive display. Not often planted in Taiwan because of the island’s climatic conditions.

福杉 Chinese Fir

Chinese FirCunninghamia lanceolata
This tall, straight conifer has linear distichousleaves that spiral around the stem, with powder green backs. Cone scales proliferous, with a vegetable shoot growing beyond the tip. The tree grows rapidly, making it a major paper-pulp species.

桂花 Sweet Osmanthus

Sweet OsmanthusOsmanthus fragrans
This small tree has ovate opposite leaves with glossy surfaces and serrate margins. The flowers have a pleasing aroma and the flowering season is long, with blossoms most abundant in autumn. Flowers can be soaked in liquor, used in tea, made into seasoning, or refined into aromatic oil for perfume.

裏白楤木 Taiwan Angelica-tree

Taiwan Angelica-treeAralia bipinnata
Limbs and trunk have thorns. Odd bi-pinnately compound leaves with gray-white backs. Clumps of small white flowers appear on the branches in autumn, and the purplish-red fruits that grow in winter are a favored food for insects and birds.

杜鵑花 Azalea

AzaleaRhododendron simsii
This shrub reaches full bloom in the spring, with funnel-shaped flowers on the tips of its branches adding vibrancy to the season in multiple colors: red, peach red, pink, and white. Leaves oblong oval, with grayish-brown bristles.

杜鵑花 Azalea

杜鵑花Rhododendron simsii
This shrub reaches full bloom in the spring, with funnel-shaped flowers on the tips of its branches adding vibrancy to the season in multiple colors: red, peach red, pink, and white. Leaves oblong oval, with grayish-brown bristles.


大紅紋鳳蝶 Common Windmill

Common TigerByasapolyeuctes subsp. termessus
A large butterfly; base wing color black, wings around 8cm wide when spread; two white spots in middle of hind wings; bright red spots on lower margins and tail protrusions; feeds on leaves of the poisonous yellow mouth dutchmanspipe, accumulating toxins in its body to repel natural enemies.

紅肩粉蝶 Red-base Jezebel

Red-base JezebelDelias pasithoe curasena
Base wing color black; wings about 6cm when spread; when folded exhibit an eye-catching red spot at the base; yellow spots at wing margins; gray-white spots on upper wings. Larvae feed on Indian sandalwood and plants of the Loranthaceae family.

寬青帶鳳蝶 Glassy Bluebottle

Glassy BluebottleGraphium cloanthus kuge
Wingspread of 5-6cm; wings black below, broad, translucent blue-green stripe through the center of both fore- and hindwings; hindwings with thin tails. Larvae feed on the Chinese spice bush and Taiwan actinodaphne.

曙鳳蝶 Aurora Swallowtail

Aurora SwallowtailAtrophaneura horishana
This large butterfly shows forewings of black and hindwings of peach red when folded; when spread, the wings stretch 9~12cm. The color of the male is relatively light. The larvae feed mainly on leaves of plants of the Aristolochiaceae, or Birthwort, family.

黑脈樺斑蝶 Common Tiger

Common TigerDanaus genutia
Wings orange, like those of the plain tiger but with clear black veins; wings about 6.5cm wide when spread; folded wings of the male exhibit black spots on the hind wings; feeds on the Lanyu swallow-wort and Formosan swallow-wort.

白尾鴝 White-tailed Blue Robin

White-tailed Blue RobinMyiomela leucura
Body about 16cm long; male blue-black, female dark brown; white patches on the tail. Sub-adults have pale spots all over their bodies. Call a high-putched sound like“MI…do-re-mi”. Active mostly singly in the understory of dense, humid forests.

冠羽畫眉 Formosan Yuhina

Formosan Yuhina Yuhina brunneiceps
有如龐克頭的褐色羽冠是牠的招牌造型,常成群在森林中、上層活動,繁殖季會共同築巢、育雛。叫聲「吐---米酒─ 」婉轉悅耳。
A Taiwan endemic; signature feature a brown, punk-like crown; often active in flocks in the forest upper story; feeds on nectar and insects. Works together to build nests and raise young in breeding season. Call a pleasant sound somewhat like twi-MI-chiu, which resembles the phrase "to MEET you".

黃胸藪眉 (藪鳥) Steere's Liocichla

Steere's LiocichlaLiocichla steerii
Body olive-green in color, with orange spots below eyes; wings short and rounded, beak brown-black. Male and female have similarly colored plumage. Prefers to live in dense mountain forests and underbrush.Liocichla steerii

青背山雀 Green-backed Tit

Green-backed TitParus monticolus
Black head and beak, white spots on cheeks, yellow-green back, bright yellow below with black central line. Two white stripes on wings. Usually active in mid and upper forest levels. Call a brisk and variable ji-ji-jiang—or chew-chew.

莫氏樹蛙 Moltrechti's Green Treefrog

Moltrechti's Green TreefrogRhacophorus moltrechti
A Taiwan endemic species; body length about 5cm; glossy green back, white abdomen; inside hind legs bright red with black spots; male has an external vocal sac that produces a turkey-like gua…a-gua-gua-gua-gua-gua sound.

盤古蟾蜍 Central Formosan Toad

Central Formosan ToadBufo bankorensis
This Taiwan endemic has rough skin, covered with glandular strumae. Its body is 6~11cm long. When attacked it will raise high on its four legs and emit a “gougou” sound to defend itself. If this doesn’t work it will run away or play dead; if all else fails, it will spray venom from its retroauricular glands.

獨角仙 Rhinoceros Beetle

Rhinoceros Beetle鞘翅目Coleoptera 金龜子科Scarabaeidae
Named for the huge horn-like projection extending from the head of the male. Major species inhabiting Taiwan today are the Japanese rhinoceros beetle and Siamese rhinoceros beetle, which feed on tree sap and rotting fruit. When they fight, they use their “horns” to throw their opponents from the field. They like to live on the trunk of the Griffith’s ash.

鍬形蟲 Stag Beetle

Stag Beetle鞘翅目Coleoptera 鍬形蟲科Lucanidae
Named for the resemblance of the male’s huge jaws to the antlers of a stag. There are about 1,200 species of stage beetle in the world, of which more than 50 have been recorded in Taiwan. Larvae live mainly on rotting wood and humus soil; they are decomposers of the forest. Rhinoceros and stag beetles are favorite bugs for children.

麗紋石龍子 Five-striped Blue-tailed Skink

Five-striped Blue-tailed SkinkEumeces elegans
Body 22-27cm long; entire body glossy and scaly. Juveniles have beautiful blue tails, and five yellow stripes running down the backs give the skink its name. Adults are colored a plain gray-brown with dark spots.

短肢攀蜥 Short-legged Japalura

Short-legged JapaluraJapalura brevipes
A Taiwan endemic. Overall length not exceeding 25cm, non-self-severing tail accounting for about two-thirds of total length. Good camouflage, changeable according to the environment. Eats insects and other small invertebrates.

赤腹松鼠 Red-bellied Tree Squirrel

Red-bellied Tree SquirrelCallosciurus erythraeus thaiwanensis
Body 18-24cm long, tail slightly shorter, with hugely expanded fur. Back gray-brown, belly and inside of legs reddish-brown. Likes to eat fruit of Fagaceae (beech-oak) family plants, and has the habit of hoarding food.

黑肚綿羊 Barbado Sheep

Barbado SheepCapra hirus
Belly, forehead, inside of legs, and ears black. Cross between African short-haired sheep and European sheep. Developed in the Barbados, hence the name. Wood short and odorless; strongly resistant to disease.

獵遠牧羊犬 Huntaway

Huntaway 獵遠牧羊犬主要以吼聲來趕羊,必須吠聲響亮,能從遠距離替牧羊主人管理或驅趕羊群。通常體力旺盛、好奇心強。
The huntaway drives sheep mainly with its bark; its bark must be powerful so that it can herd or drive flocks of sheep from a distance. Usually strong of body and highly curious.

警示牧羊犬 Eyedog

Eyedog 擔任警示工作的狗狗主要以眼神、動作趕羊,必須個性機警,對周遭常保戒心,動作敏捷,善於追蹤、嚮導羊群,且忠誠不亂吠,如:邊境牧羊犬。
These dogs drive sheep mainly by using eye language and body movement. They must have an alert nature and be always aware of their surroundings; they must be agile, and good at chasing and guiding flocks. They must be devoted and not prone to needless barking—like border collies.
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